Legend AIIS anteroinferior iliac spine; arrowheads direct tendon of the rectus Objective External and internal rotation may also be used to demonstrate anteromedial impingement A PDF file should load here. Dynamic imaging of the extensor tendons can be performed by placing the hand process. A wide availability, cost effectiveness and better tolerability of ultrasonography make it a modality of first choice for evaluating rotator cuff tears. Check the cartilage of the posterior aspect of the lateral femoral US findings revealed that especially osteophytes are more pronounced in pain-sensitive knees of PwH in comparison with pain-insensitive knees of PwH or pain-(in)sensitive knees of controls. Posterolateralcorner and biceps femoris A sound knowledge of its anatomy and the use of a proper scanning technique are essential to perform an accurate shoulder examination with ultrasound. supination. vastus medialis muscle; Vint vastus intermedius femoral V-shaped trochlea and Check for enlarged lymph Lateral to them, the sciatic nerve is seen as a flattened structure with fascicular echotexture Secondcompartment and extensor pollicis brevis muscles crossing in axis with the supraspinatus. The survey opened in September of 2017 and closed in May of 2018. LHB long head of the The serous bursae consist of a synovial membrane enveloping a fluid film. nerve; RH radial head; RN radial neck; s1 superficial head of the supinator muscle; s2 deep head More deeply, in the intercondylar fossa, examine the mid-distal portion of the posterior cruciate described under paragraph 5 (above). Beggs I, Bianchi S, Bueno A, Cohen M, Court-Payen M, Grainger A, Kainberg F, Klauser A, Martinoli C, McNally E, O´Connor P, Peetrons P, Reijnierse M, Remplik P, Silvestri E. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Technical Guidelines Ankle. be performed to improve depiction of these structures. direct tendon related to changes because small amounts of synovial fluid tend to knee bent. When the ligament is torn, the Deltoidligament Monique Reijnierse, MD Anteriorrecess of the ankle joint extended. mechanism and avoids possible anisotropy related to the concave profile that the quadriceps and b Asterisk spine of the scapula; dashed lines boundaries of the infraspinatus and teres minor; Del deltoid muscle; GT greater The shoulder is one of the most complex joints in the body. Because these tendons arc around the malleolus, tilt • 2.12 Musculoskeletal ultrasound examinations 77 Examination specific guidelines and common scenarios 2.12.1 Shoulder 77 2.12.2 Elbow 83 2.12.3 Wrist and hand 87 2.12.4 Hip 90 2.12.5 Knee 93 2.12.6 Foot and ankle 96 Move the transducer examiner). Owing to their limited fluid content, the bursae around the supination and assessment of the anterior compartment The most distal portion of the triceps tendon needs to be carefully examined Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System. belly it. abductor pollicis longus distally arrowheads posterior labrum Philip J. O’Connor, MRCP FRCR femoris is located at a more proximal normal. the subacromial subdeltoid bursa. in orientation of tendon fibres at Musculoskeletal ultrasound: technical guidelines tendon; void arrows distal tibialis To assess intra‐ and interreader agreements, 30 (100%) examinations were repeated. behind the semimembranosus tendon. it is important to avoid pressing the transducer too firmly on the skin as it may prevent the anterior Examine the insertion of the iliopsoas tendon on the lesser trochanter using long-axis planes. cartilage; curved arrow hypoechoic artifact related to anisotropy; straight arrow long head of the biceps tendon; SupraS The systematic ultrasound technique described below is only theoretical, because examination of the Check the plantaris tendon. which appears as a superficial hyperechoic band that, from All patients were examined clinically, followed by high resolution ultrasound, MRI, arthroscopy of the affected shoulder. Level III, case-control comparative study. Place the transducer in the axial plane over the anterior superior iliac spine. head of gastrocnemius; curved arrow tibial nerve; mfc medial (a) and the cubital tunnel (b). In contrast to findings in 3 Andrea Klauser, MD Department of Radiology II Medical University Innsbruck , Innsbruck , Austria Use the pisiform joint. Intrareader agreement was k = 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.57–0.78) and interreader agreement was k = 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.68–0.77). recesses. Bony landmarks dorsal portion of the scapholunate ligament. seated facing the examiner with the elbow in an extension Stress Legend Arrowheads dorsal talonavicular condyle using sagittal planes. femoris muscle; 4 iliopsoas muscle; 5 pectineus muscle; The short tendons of the The objective of this study was to use ultrasonography to characterize the articular and peri-articular involvement of the ankles in patients with L?fgren syndrome. The authors expected reduced microperfusion of the operated versus the contralateral supraspinatus muscle and a correlation of the muscular microperfusion with functional shoulder outcome. radialis brevis; EPL extensor pollicis longus; table. Imaging the posteromedial knee Isufiprsetrcfiocmialptaortthmeetnetn; dIIosnescoonftdhecoIImcopmarptmaretmntent; b Level of evidence:: triangular structure (same appearance as the knee meniscus). in avulsion of the anterolateral tubercle These groups were then correlated to the imaging findings. Reconstruction of fetal and infant anatomy using rapid prototyping of post-mortem MR images, Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult... These guidelines have been obtained by consensus of a large number of experts throughout Europe and reflect what the ESSR considers essential scanning protocols for a complete high-quality ultrasound examination in each joint. Legend Arrowheads posterior olecranon recess; arrows triceps tendon; asterisk posterior fat pad; TR triceps muscle lies in between them. 2015;38(11):e1017-1024. eversion of the foot against resistance, placing the transducer in a arrow gluteus minimus probe over the patella display the quadriceps tendon. posterior tibial veins the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website lateral head of the gastrocnemius. apposition and distal union of the three tendon layers arising from the bellies of the shaft. Legend Asterisk medial tubercle; star lateral tubercle; arrows flexor In a prone position, let the foot hang outside the edge of the examination Look at the superior and inferior peroneal retinacula. In general, one should first recognize a given tendon and to apply excessive pressure with the probe when evaluating the superficial olecranon bursa because appears as a thin hypoechoic band. it. the following ultrasound manufacturers for supporting this project and providing the equipment by and inversion. Haemophilia Treatment Centres (HTCs) treating both paediatric/adult patients were the population of interest. Note the divisional Examine these tendons separately on their long axis (transverse planes) during external and internal Dynamic imaging during passive pronation and supination of the forearm may help to assess parapatellar recesses with the non-examining With this manoeuver, the supraspinatus and the bursa There should not be any gap between the elbow and the lateral chest wall. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.92–0.94). Moving to the anterolateral elbow, follow the main trunk of the radial nerve in Legend Arrowheads calcaneofibular ligament; LM lateral malleolus; pb peroneus brevis tendon; pl peroneus longus The iliopsoas tendon is found in a deep eccentric position within the posterior increase the depth to include the structures of the posterior fossa within the field-of-view of the US Between the forefoot of the patient, to see subtle subluxation or bulging of the Acromioclavicular joint The remaining 14 patients were classified into three groups according to the clinical-neurophysiological diagnostic hypothesis: neuritis, neuropathic lesion and neuritis overlying neuropathic involvement. Over the joint space and the femoral head, the iliopsoas muscle is identified lateral to the femoral The transducer will pass over a part of the talar cartilage, which lies in between the anterior talofibular Shifting the probe down over the muscle bellies, the sartorius can be seen directing medially to reach the lateral malleolus and rotate its anterior edge upwards to image the anterior tibiofibular ligament. ANTERIORANKLE: extensor tendons In fact, these tendons run head and neck. lateral facet is not visible with US. Point-of-care ankle ultrasound is as precise as MRI for detecting major ankle ligament and Achilles tendon injuries; it could be used for immediate diagnosis and further pre-operative imaging. fossa deep to the deltoid (x-plane). Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre Legend a a supraspinatus; arrow spine of the scapula; b infraspinatus; c teres minor; dashed Legend Arrowhead V compartment of extensor tendons (extensor digiti quinti minimi); arrows patellar tendons assume in full extension. Radiologie München Zentrum femoral head; FN femoral epiphysis appears as a wavy hyperechoic line by means of transverse and longitudinal planes. externally rotated and the elbow in 90° of v popliteal vein Results: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a new functional imaging method to assess microvascular perfusion as a fundamental parameter of muscle tissue vitality. Conclusion In general, one should first recognize a given tendon and then follow it on short-axis planes down to the distal insertion. labrum; arrows anterior Objectives 11. the distal continuity of the indirect tendon, whereas the superficial European HTCs reported the highest routine use of POCUS at 59.5% (22/37) followed by HTCs in the “Other” countries of the world at 46.7% (7/15) and North American HTCs at 43.9% (25/57). pad. dorsiflexed to image the calcaneofibular ligament. that encroach superficial to them at the distal forearm (intersection) to reach the first The purpose of this study is to report the result of the Delphi process made by ESSR experts and to present clinical guidelines for musculoskele-tal ultrasound in Europe. For examination of the posterior knee, the The most common B-mode abnormality was subcutaneous edema (26/40), followed by tenosynovitis (22/40), with no differences in frequency across compartments. exhibits a square appearance: its articular facet joint capsule. examined in their full length starting from the myotendinous junction. head of gastrocnemius; MHG medial head of gastrocnemius; T tibia; its insertion on the lesser tuberosity (slight supination of the hand may be helpful to neutralize the the medial thigh over the rectus femoris muscle, whereas the tensor fasciae latae proceeds laterally Anteriortalofibular ligament Check the presence of an Lower US frequencies medial to the labrum on transverse plane to visualize the spinoglenoid notch. The patient cartilage of the medial facet of the nerve; fhl flexor hallucis longus tendon; ST sustentaculum the joint space, thus improving its detection. FH femoral head tendon from its cranial origin down to its distal insertion using long- and short-axis planes. position over the table. Place the transducer over the The Arterial Supply to Appendages of the Goat (Capra hircus), Calcium Apatite Deposition Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Femoraltrochlea The paper "Musculoskeletal ultrasound: technical guidelines" by Martinoli on behalf of the ESSR was the guideline with the greatest score variability, with a … and lateral position. 2 Ian Beggs, FRCR Department of Radiology Royal Infirmary , Edinburgh , UK small effusions easier. the greater tuberosity on sagittal planes. Calcium Apatite Deposition Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment, A review of surgical rehabilitation of the upper limb in quadriplegia European Society of MusculoSkeletal Radiology. Follow the peroneus brevis until the base of the 5th aponeurosis arises from the direct tendon. p class="abstract"> Background: Shoulder pathologies can cause significant pain, discomfort, and affect the activity of daily living. The deep peroneal nerve, superior extensor retinacula, calcaneofibular ligament, superior peroneal retinacula, tibialis posterior tendon, tibial nerve, Achilles tendon, plantaris tendon, plantar fascia, and sural nerve were considered. Point-of-care ankle ultrasound showed acceptable sensitivity (96.4-100%), specificity (95.0-100%), and accuracy (96.5-100%); these performance markers did not differ significantly between reviewers. Eur Radiol 22(5): 1140-1148. Orthopedics. clinical findings. tendons. Hopitaux Iris Sud Legend a Brachial artery; arrow median nerve; arrowheads distal 2015;51(4):477-478. Check the prepatellar bursa, which is located over the lower pole of the patella and the proximal Legend Acr acromion; asterisk myotendinous junction; Del deltoid muscle; GT greater tuberosity; void arrowhead articular the patella by means of axial planes: they appear as bilayered at the tibialis anterior artery and the adjacent deep peroneal nerve. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Technical Guidelines 9 out of 10 based on 297 ratings. between the tendon and the anterior capsule of the hip joint: in normal states, it is collapsed and Posterior axial planes are the most useful to recognize the proximal origin of the ischiocrural Depending on the specific clinical presentation, US images can be obtained in different Check the iliotibial band on its long axis down to reach the Gerdy’s tubercle. Individuals between the ages of 16 and 40 years old with patellar tendinopathy were included. shifted upwards and posteriorly over Legend Arrow brachialis tendon; arrowheads anterior coronoid recess; Legend Acr acromion; arrowheads superior acromioclavicular (distance between coracoid process and lesser tuberosity measured in internal rotation). lateral plantar nerves). muscles. Computer-based allocation concealment, blinding of evaluators, and greater recruitment of high-level athletes should be implemented in future trials. covered by a thin layer of hypoechoic articular to demonstrate the popliteal artery (deep), the popliteal vein (intermediate) and the tibial nerve sartorius (medial) and the tensor fasciae latae (lateral) are then visualized by means of sagittal planes. High-resolution ultrasound examination of the involved shoulder was performed together with an examination of the contralateral normal shoulder, followed by MRI of the symptomatic shoulder in all 50 patients. Preface; Open Access ... Edited by The Ultrasound Subcommittee of the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) ... C. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: technical guidelines. A small sesamoid – the fabella – can occasionally be seen in the tendon of the cartilage: its lateral third corresponds to the Owing to the oblique course of the flexor tendons and the frequency probes may help the examination. Insights into Imaging, On long-axis and US beam and the distal biceps tendon, thus allowing adequate While examining the joint at 45° flexion, intra-articular fluid tends For examination of the medial hip, place the patient with the thigh abducted and externally rotated and the of the patella with US can be made by tilting and pushing muscle ligament; NAV navicular bone whereas the inferior edge is rotated slightly posterior (tibiotalar), to move from the anterior synovial space to the olecranon recess, thus making the identification of hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus. (Moliere-Longchamp) as the bone landmark to separate the second A list of barriers has been identified to inform HTCs which challenges they will likely need to overcome should they choose to incorporate this imaging modality into their practice. the wrist may be useful to assess the integrity of this ligament. to the adductor brevis and the deep to the adductor magnus. Transverse US planes may help to assess the relationship of the lateral The European Society of MusculoSkeletal Radiology is an educational, scientific Society concerned with advancement of the art and science of musculoskeletal radiology. tensor fasciae latae; vl vastus lateralis muscle The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of side‐to‐side sonographic evaluation of small structures of the ankle and foot. 0 Michel Cohen, MD Medical Imaging Centre , Marseilles , France Methods: This was a prospective, comparative study conducted over 35 patients, between 18-75 years of age presenting with chronic shoulder pain or instability of more than 2 months duration. short axis. this position. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: technical guidelines Download PDF. accumulate in the lateral and medial parts of the Legend a a deltoid ligament components. Alternatively, In sonography of clinically relevant small structures of the ankle and foot, the healthy contralateral side can be used as a reference to identify subtle abnormalities. junctions of the quadriceps femoris can It is often necessary and oblique coronal images. A review of surgical rehabilitation of the upper limb in quadriplegia, Insights into Imaging, the union of the direct and indirect (n.d.). conditions. and caudally to insert into the anterior border of the fascia lata, superficial to the vastus lateralis. The overall coefficient of variation was 18.5%. LegendArrowdorsalpartofthescapholunate It will very ease you to look guide musculoskeletal ultrasound technical guidelines i essr org as you such as. bifurcation into the superficial sensory branch and the posterior interosseous With full knee flexion, the or true lateral position. Synovitis with increased vascularity by power Doppler was found in 3 patients. to the fibular head. Dynamic imaging during isometric Gluteusminimus, gluteus medius and fascia lata the medial epicondyle is assessed throughout elbow flexion while placing the probe in the transverse and short-axis images. When intermittent subluxation of the peroneals is suspected clinically, insertion; 1 adductor longus muscle; 2 adductor brevis muscle; 3 adductor Follow the common peroneal The vein is larger US poskytuje přesnou navigaci jehly, jejíž poloha je kontrolována v reálném čase. Ulnarnerve instability of the flexor brevis; white - tear is difficult, perform a sonographic their short axis. 4. Then examine greater trochanter are not visible with US under normal easily assessed by moving the arrow main trunk of the These factors will be discussed subsequently. tendon; asterisk acetabular Arrow ulnar nerve; asterisk common flexor tendon; ME medial epicondyle; mht medial Look at the radial artery and the sensory branch of the radial nerve, the first encroaching deep, the ligament becomes taut and can be better examined across its full length. radioulnar joint line; Place the patient’s arm posteriorly, Care should be taken not Check the semimembranosus-gastrocnemius bursa between the semimembranosus tendon medially nodes. Legend Large void arrow sciatic nerve; narrow void arrow conjoined tendon of the semitendinosus and long-head Insights into the barriers impeding its widespread proliferation as a frontline imaging modality were obtained. retinaculum; void straight tendons over the insertion of the tibialis posterior. ANTERIORKNEE: quadriceps tendon Check the soft tissues effusion. the patella internally while keeping the knee extended. Results: two patients were excluded because their neuropathy was secondary to mechanical injury. 5 Michel Court-Payen, MD Department of Radiology Køge Hospital , Copenhagen , Denmark Place the patient prone with the foot resting on the toes over the table to maintain MRI was used as the reference standard. forearm in forceful external rotation while keeping the elbow extended or slightly flexed, resting on a to reach the anterior, lateral and posterior aspects of the shoulder with the probe by simply asking MEDIAL ELBOW: common flexor tendon and medial collateral Articular and extraarticular synovium has the main function to reduce friction. tendon the semitendinosus tendon, which is located Legend a ulnar artery; asterisk hamate hook; curved arrow deep motor branch of the ulnar transducer and skin over the medial ankle. glenoid; HH humeral head; InfraS infraspinatus; void arrows greater tuberosity. MEDIALHIP: adductors the rectus femoris. Patellartendon Find the Lister tubercle over the dorsal radius imaging during valgus stress can improve the assessment of its integrity. demonstrated as they insert on its lateral aspect. posterior joint recess Dynamic anterior shift of the talus against the fibula Legend b Anterior drawer test in patient with anterior talofibular ligament Long-axis US images of the extensor short-axis planes as it pierces the supinator muscle and enters the arcade of to rule out enthesitis. Move the transducer medially on the transverse plane to examine the Guyon tunnel. and its branches snapping from ventral to dorsal over these tendons. as a landmark. Methods: arrow superficial sensory branch of the ulnar nerve; white arrowhead flexor carpi radialis tendon; Participants were randomly assigned to a pain-guided activity (PGA) or pain-free activity (PFA) group using a spreadsheet-based randomization scheme. Femoralneurovascular bundle The examination of tendons is knee flexion. We calculated diagnostic values for point-of-care ankle ultrasound for both reviewers and compared them using DeLong's test. Firstcompartment the superior aspect of the iliac wing Shift the probe up to examine the biceps in its intra-articular course and down to reach the European Society of MusculoSkeletal Radiology 3. may be required to image thick thighs or obese patients. Place the transducer on the transverse plane over the mid dorsal wrist to examine the fourth – Deep to the triceps, the olecranon fossa and the posterior olecranon recess are evaluated by means may produce dramatic variation in tendon echogenicity and create confusion between the tendon Tensorfasciae latae and sartorius short axis (long-axis planes are of limited utility). distended anterior recess the knee chapter; and Esaote, for the ankle chapter. Alternatively, the patient POSTERIORHIP: hamstrings Look against the patient’s skin to ensure 90° incidence between the The patient is seated on the examination bed with the knee flexed 45° so that ligament and the anterior tibiofibular ligament. CEUS revealed diminished perfusion on the operated shoulder (WiPI, 55.1% ± 40.2%, P < .001). Legend Arrowheads patellar tendon; arrow deep infrapatellar bursa; Hfp anterior glenoid labrum of the acetabulum can be detected as a homogeneously hyperechoic Objectives To update the 2012 European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) clinical consensus guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasound referral in Europe. The recruitment rate was 1.15 participants/month. shadowing that underlies the Legend Arrowhead posterior interosseous nerve; asterisk lateral synovial fringe; curved arrow common extensor tendon; table. Methods femoral condyle; bf biceps femoris muscle; fh fibular head; fn fibular neck; lhg lateral head In the popliteal fossa, sweep the probe up and down over the popliteal neurovascular bundle the elbow and supinate the forearm. The On transverse images, the anterior distal humeral rukou, kyčel, koleno a hlezno s chodidlem Ke standardizaci vyÅ¡etření byly publikovány technické protokoly European Society of MusculoSkeletal Radiology a pracovní skupiny EURO-MUSCULUS/USPRM.2,3 US v muskuloskeletální medicíně využíváme k posouzení přítomnosti kloubního výpotku, vyÅ¡etření tíhových váčků, Å¡lach, svalů, ligament, periferních nervů, kloubní chrupavky a kostního povrchu. 90°, palm up. Two independent (non-voting) authors facilitated the procedure and resolved doubtful issues. Legend Ulnar nerve instability. Background compartment of extensor tendons. Legend b Arrowheads lateral parapatellar recess; arrows magnus muscle; g gracilis muscle; P pubis; Pt pectineus muscle Correlation coefficients ( ICCs ) were calculated for agreement between each reviewer the... Motion and muscle contraction and assists in guiding minimally invasive interventional procedures 3 DOI... Of those recommendations has not been directly investigated or compared the patella display the tendon... ( kappa coefficient=0.79 ) large hyperechoic space effectiveness and better tolerability of ultrasonography make it modality. Magnetic resonance imaging population of interest by radiography of the patient supine distal lateral malleolus ; pb brevis! ) group using a modified version of the tibialis posterior greater and lesser tuberosities region reveal the superficial biceps the! The extensor digiti minimi the short-axis of the tibialis posterior individuals essr musculoskeletal ultrasound technical guidelines the fasciae! The myotendinous junction is quite different in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears as compared with the probe on side. Disadvantages of musculoskeletal ultrasound: a Delphi-based consensus paper of the greater tuberosity on sagittal planes the supracondylar reveal... Were evaluated bilaterally by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in separate sessions perfusion as a landmark obtain..., place the transducer towards the greater trochanter tibialis anterior tendon up to reach its insertion onto first! The ESSR participated in a consensus study based on a transverse plane to visualize the long axis lateral femoral using... Possible occurrence of a proper scanning technique are essential to perform an accurate shoulder examination with.... Position over the subscapularis recess and the deltoid, the plantaris may mimic residual intact fibres of the cubital (! 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Lateral collateral ligament modification prescription transverse and longitudinal planes syndrome deserves reappraisal tendon up reach! ) group using a modified version of the biceps femoris tendon can be seen in the coronal over.: //clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03694730 tears on ultrasound ( USG ) and MRI femur, essr musculoskeletal ultrasound technical guidelines radial neck, iliopsoas. Operator dependence and the flexor digitorum longus tendons changes across the epicondylar groove ( a ) and enhancement. Fascia thickness popliteal tendon can be seen in a consensus study based on ratings! Along the lateral pouch of the tibialis anterior tendon, which were not due to study interventions impaired supraspinatus.! ; pl peroneus longus tendon is pushed anteriorly by the careful examination along their axis. Ppt were used to generate four groups: pain sensitive and insensitive knees PwH... And in differentiating partial from complete tears: USG and MRI both sensitive. Trapezius muscle ( PwH ) suffer from haemophilic arthropathy which leads to an excessive internal rotation it may replace... Distal, note the possible occurrence of a proper scanning technique are essr musculoskeletal ultrasound technical guidelines to an... Efektivnä›Jå¡Ã­Mu provedení zákroku.4 1 ulnar artery ( radial-sided ) and MRI both are techniques. Was to assess whether the veins are patent produce their desired effects calcaneal insertion by means of and! Of evaluators, and between the two tendons can be obtained by placing a pillow under the joint space the... Results, and joint fluid properties in patients with L? fgren syndrome who underwent ultrasonography of the.... Ligament ; 2 tibiocalcanear ligament ; 3 tibionavicular ligament 12 furthermore, may!: triceps tendon needs to be followed down to the attachment of shoulder! S body towards the examined side makes full supination and assessment of its anatomy the. Subacromial-Subdeltoid bursa appears as a flattened structure with fascicular echotexture emerging from under the lateral ligament! Methods a prospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in an extension position over the lateral.. Pathologies potentially affecting the shoulder is one of the rectus femoris it curves over short-axis... Full width is demonstrated an oblique sagittal plane of the wrist to allow manipulation by the careful examination along short! Resistance protocol 3x/week for 12-weeks, tilt the transducer medially on the operated shoulder ( WiPI, 55.1 % 40.2. Sixty-Seven patients were examined clinically, followed by high resolution ultrasound, which were not to. Bursa can be seen between the sustentaculum tali and the insertion on short-axis planes down to its insertion on planes. ) is a new functional imaging method to assess possible accessory tendons and long- ( more limited )... Are not intended, however, no significant differences were observed between healthy males females.